Rumkowski until she was deported to Auschwitz in August 1944; going through a selection and sent to the Freiberg, Germany airplane factory; being transferred later to Mauthausen in Austria, where she was liberated by the Americans in the spring of 1945; the birth of a baby girl (both mother and baby survived) just prior to liberation; receiving help from a German farmer; staying briefly in Lodz and Gdansk; life in Gdansk, where she got married; living with her husband for four years in Munich, Germany, where they belonged to Rabbi Lazerowski’s synagogue and she attended the ORT school; immigrating to the US in 1949 with the help of the Joint Distribution Committee; and the story of the hiding of a Torah by a non-Jew in Ozorków and how he gave it to a survivor from Ozorków to take to Atlanta, Georgia.
Oral History Dora Golubowitz Freilich, born December 25, 1926 in Pruzany, Poland, near Bialystok, describes her pre-war life, including her schooling, relations with non-Jewish Poles, Jewish community life, and youth groups; the Russian occupation from 1939 to 1941, including the expropriation of her family’s business; the German invasion and her family being forced to move into the Pruzany ghetto in June 1941; the living conditions, cultural activities, labor units, Judenrat (Jewish council), and contact with Jewish partisans in the ghetto; how a non-Jewish ex-employee of her father hid her baby sister but later the family asked him to return the child; the evacuation of the ghetto in January 1943 and her family’s transport to Auschwitz-Birkenau; witnessing Mengele’s sadistic games with prisoners and her awareness of the medical experiments (which she describes in great detail); sadistic behavior by guards, including the shooting of her sister for sport; conditions at Birkenau, including slave labor, types of prisoners, orchestra, death process, and relations among inmates; how older girls tried to help the younger ones and the coping strategies they used to survive; the sabotage of a crematorium in October 1944 and the public hanging of four girls held responsible; the escape, capture, and execution of Mala Zimetbaum; life in the camp in January 1945 and the death march to Ravensbruck concentration camp, where she stayed for three months; being transferred to Malchow; escaping with 11 girls into the forest; being liberated by Russian soldiers in May 1945; the treatment by Russians, which ranged from kindness to brutality; their return to Pruzany after a three month journey, during which she experienced both antisemitism and help from non-Jews; going on to Lodz, Poland; their failed attempt to go to Palestine; getting married; going to Feldafing displaced persons camp in 1946; immigrating to the United States in March 1949; survivor’s guilt; and how the Holocaust and the loss of her family still affects both her and her daughter.
Procedures of Raman spectra subtraction have been applied for the extractions of weak and/or obscured Raman signals.
As a result, the presence of bound SO ion and water molecules in the first coordination sphere in the acidic aqueous iron(III) isothiocyanate solution was confirmed.
AA(Department of Environmental Technology, Kaunas University of Technology, Radvilėnų av.
The Gratz College Hebrew Education Society conducted the interview with Erica van Adelsberg in Philadelphia, Pa., on December 8, 1981.The journal aims at becoming a multidisciplinary venue of sharing ideas and experience among the scholars working in the field.The articles are published in five languages (as submitted by the authors): English, German, French, Russian and Lithuanian.19, LT-50254 Kaunas, Lithuania), AF(Department of Environmental Technology, Kaunas University of Technology, Radvilėnų av.19, LT-50254 Kaunas, Lithuania) complex in the aqueous solution at the p H ∼ 2 ± 0.1 have been performed.